Before the dawn of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, the infidels were suffering from many social evils, like illiteracy, deep-rooted hatred resulting in killings travelling in generations, burying their daughters alive for the baseless shame of a daughter, jealousy etc.
Shaykh Tabrasi, Ali bin Ibrahim, Shaykh Tusi and many Shia and Sunni commentators have narrated from the Infallible Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (a.s.) and Ibn Abbas that twelve thousands mounted men of the Valley of Yabis co vented on oath to kill the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) and the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (a.s.). Jibra’il descended and informed the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) about the plot and ordered to send Abu baker bin Kahafa along with four thousand Muslims to fight the infidels. When the Muslim army reached Yabis, the infidels said: We have nothing to do with you, go back but we will slay Muhammad and his brother Ali.” Abu Baker told the army about the superiority of the infidels and ordered them to retreat. The army replied: “You act contrary to the commands of the Prophet, fear Allah and fight with them.” But Abu Baker returned to Madinah. The Noble Prophet (s.a.w.a.s.) rebuked him for disobedience and cowardice and then informed the Muslims that he was divinely commanded to send Umar ibn Khattab with four thousand mounted men on this expedition. Umar ibn Khattab’s fortune was precisely the same as Abu Baker ibn Kahafa.
According to Shaykh Mufeed (r.a.), the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) then sent the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (a.s.), and prayed: “O Lord! I have appointed one who is a fighter and never flees from the battle. So help him for the sake of my sanctity and make him victorious.” Imam Ali (a.s.) made such forced marches through unusual routes that the men feared that their horse would be exhausted but Imam Ali (a.s.) encouraged his army saying that the Noble Prophet (s.a.w.a.s.) had commanded him victory. The infidels sent a group of two hundred men to inquire about their whereabouts and objectives. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: “I am Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and brother of the Prophet, and his messenger to summon you to testify to the divine Unity, and to the prophet hood of the Prophet; therefore embrace Islam and share the prosperity and adversity of the Muslims.” The infidels replied: “You are just the man we wanted to encounter; get ready for battle, and be assured we shall slay you and your army. Let the only treaty between us to meet tomorrow morning at breakfast time.” Imam Ali (a.s.) retorted: “Woe to you! Do you think you can frighten me with your superior numbers? I look to the aid of Allah, angels, and Muslims, and verily, there is no might or power, but the Almighty Allah.”
At earliest morning the Muslims performed prayers and Imam Ali (a.s.) attacked the infidels and utterly routed them. A daring youth came out and used filthy language for the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.). Imam Ali (a.s.) exchanged a few blows and sent him to Hell. Then Imam Ali (a.s.) asked for another contestant and his brother came out and was also sent to Hell by Imam Ali (a.s.). Then Imam Ali (a.s.) called for another contestant. The chief of the infidel’s army, Harith bin Makida who was considered to be equal to 500 men, came out and attacked Imam Ali (a.s.) but the Imam (a.s.) repelled his blow and gave him slash cutting him into two pieces. After him, his cousin Amr bin Fatak came out but was killed by Imam Ali (a.s.) in one blow. After that no one dared face the Lion of Allah (a.s.). Imam Ali (a.s.) tied the remaining men, women and children. That is why this battle is called “Zat ul Salasil” They all returned to Madinah. On the morning of the victory, Jibra’il descended and informed the Noble Prophet (s.a.w.a.s.) about Imam Ali (a.s.)’s victory. He (s.a.w.a.s.) mounted the pulpit and informed the Muslims about the victory and that only two Muslims were martyred in the battle. Later, he (s.a.w.a.s.) and the Muslims of Madinah went out several miles to meet Imam Ali (a.s.) and the victorious army. Imam Ali (a.s.) descended from the horse and the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) kissed him between his eyes. The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) Addressed to Imam Ali (a.s.): “Verily, were it not that I fear a community of followers will say of you, what the Christians affirm of I’sa, I would this declare some things in your praise, so that you would pass no company that would not gather dust on which you tread, for the blessings it confers. According to Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (a.s.) the Muslims had never taken before such valuable spoils except Khyber On this occasion, Surah al-Adiyat was revealed.
Imam reza.net, The Message by Ayatollah Jaffar Subhani,
Restatement of history of Islam and Muslims by Sayyid Ali Asghar Razwy