Monday, June 19, 2017


The Protector and the Defender of the rights of downtrodden, Imam Ali (a.s.) had left an unusual and exemplary mark on human history by his humane behavior toward his enemies. John J. Pool, historian says in his book, “Studies in Muhamadanism”; “Truly a noble man, a man of righteousness, and a brave man, forgiving spirit.” Oelsner, a French orientalist, says about Imam Ali (a.s.), “Pure, gentle and learned, without fear and without reproach, setting the noble example of character to the world.”
Out of hundreds of examples of kindness and mercy exhibited by Imam Ali (a.s.) toward his enemy, some of them are:
Talha bin Abi Talha was an arch-enemy of Islam. He was the flag bearer of the infidels in the Battle of Uhad. Imam Ali (a.s.) gave him a blow of his sword and he fell but not dead yet. Imam Ali (a.s.) walked away without killing him. Many Muslim warriors ran up to Imam Ali (a.s.) and advised him to kill Talha. Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, “He cannot defend himself now, and I cannot strike a man who cannot defend himself. If he survives he is welcome to live as long as his life lasts.”
During the Battle of Jamal, his slave Qambar brought some soft drink and said, “Master, sun is very hot and you are constantly fighting, have this drink to refresh yourself.” Imam Ali (a.s.) looked around and said, “Shall I refresh myself when hundreds of people are lying wounded and dying of thirst and wounds? Give this drink to some of the wounded persons” Qambar replied, “But they are our enemies.” Imam Ali (a.s.) said, “But they are human beings!”
In the Battle of Siffin, Muawiya’s forces captured the banks of river Euphrates and refused to allow Imam Ali (a.s.)’s forces to take water. Imam Ali (a.s.) sent a messenger saying that it was against the canons of humanity and Islam. Muawiya’s reply was, “A war is a war; hence one cannot accept principles of humanity and the doctrines of Islam. My sole aim is to kill Ali and to demoralize his army and this stoppage of water will bring about these results quickly and easily.” Imam Ali (a.s.) sent Imam Husayn (a.s.) to retake the river and it was captured. It was Muawiya turn to beseech to get permission to get water. Imam Ali (a.s.) told them take as much water as they want. When Imam Ali (a.s.)’ officers objected. Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, “They are human beings, though they acted inhumanly, yet I cannot follow their example and refuse water because they are my sworn enemy!”
In the Battle of Nahrawan, Imam Ali (a.s.) was fighting like any other soldier when a man faced him and in the encounter lost his sword. Imam Ali (a.s.) said, “Runaway friend you are not in apposition to defend yourself. The man said, “Why don’t you kill me?” Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, “I cannot strike a man who cannot defend himself. You were begging for your life and it was spared” The man said, “I was told that you have never refused a beggar, now I beg of your sword.” The Imam gave him the sword. Taking the sword in hand he said, “Now Ali, who is going to defend you from me?” Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, “Of course, Allah will defend me if He so wills! He has appointed my death to be my guardian angel, no one can harm me before it is due and no one can save me when it arrives!” Nobility of thought and action affected his foe and he kissed the bridle of Imam’s horse and said, “O Master! You are a great man indeed. You can not only forsake the life of your enemy in the battlefield but also grant your sword. May I have the honor to act as your body guard and fight for you?” Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, “Friend, fight for truth and justice and don’t fight for individuals.”
On the night of 19 Ramzan, when his assassin was brought before him, the Imam saw that the rope which was bounding him was so tightly tied that it was piercing his flesh. Imam Ali (a.s.) told the Muslims, “You should not be so cruel with your fellow-beings, slacken his ropes and decrease his agony.” Further, when some sherbet was brought for Imam Ali (a.s.), he ordered that it may be given to his assassin!

Source: Infallible

Saturday, June 17, 2017


The Commander of the Faithful, the Gateway of Knowledge and Wisdom, Imam Ali (a.s.) wrote his will to his son, on his return from the Battle of Siffin in the form of a letter. There are conflicting reports as to whom it was addressed; the Infallible Imam Hasan (a.s.) or Muhammad al-Hanafiyya. However, in Najul Balagha, it is addressed to Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husayn (a.s.)
It may be noted that the members of the Household of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) were infallible (free of sins or errors). Whether it is this will or the supplications of Sahifa al-Sajjadia of the Infallible Imam Ali ibnal Husayn (a.s.), it was meant for the guidance of the Muslims. It covers every aspect of human life to make it successful-brave, humane, generous, virtuous and pious.
He (a.s.) says,My first and foremost advice to you is to fear Allah. Be His honest servant. Keep His thought always in your mind. Be attached and carefully guard the principles (Islam). Adopt piety and kill your inordinate desires with its help. Build your character with the help of true faith in the religion - Islam. Subjugate your nature with the vision of death, study the life of past people. Rise and fall of civilizations, its people and what was their contributions to the human welfare. You will conclude that they have parted with their loved ones and everyone is now in a solitary abode, alone and unattended (grave); and you will also be like him. Take care to provide well for your future abode. Do not barter away eternal blessings for pleasures of this mortal and fleeting world. Reconciliation of your differences is worthier than all prayers and all fasting. Fear Allah in matters concerning the orphans. Fear Allah in relations to your neighbors. Remain attached to the Glorious Qur’an. Fear Allah in relation to your (obligatory) prayers. It is the pillar of your religion.
Do not talk about things which you do not know. Advise people to do good and virtuously. Let your words and deeds teach the world lessons of how to abstain from wickedness and vicious deeds. Try to keep away from those who indulge in vices and sins. Fight to defend the cause of Allah. Fearlessly and boldly help truth and justice. Develop the habit of patience against sufferings, calamities and adversities. Trust in Allah to face them. Do not seek protection and from anybody but Allah. Reserve your prayers and supplications for Him only because He is All Powerful. The knowledge which does not benefit anybody is useless.
The Lord who is the Master of death is also Master of life. This world is working under the laws ordained by Him, and it consists of assemblage and aggregation of actions and reactions, causes and effects, calamities and reverses, pains and pleasures and rewards and punishments. If you do not understand a thing do no reject it. Best thing is to seek guidance from the One, Who has created you, Who maintains and nourishes you.
Do unto others as you wish others to do unto you. Do not oppress and tyrannize anybody because surely you do not like to be oppressed and tyrannized. Be kind and sympathetic to others as you certainly desire others to treat kindly and sympathetically. Remember, that vanity and conceit are forms of folly. Lead a well-balanced life (neither be conceited nor suffer from inferiority complex) and exert yourself to earn an honest living. By the guidance of the Lord if you achieve a thing you desire, then do not be proud but be humble and submissive to Him.
The Merciful Lord has ordered that every evil deed of yours will be counted as one and virtuous deeds and pious actions will be rewarded tenfold. He has left the door of repentance open. By granting you the privilege of praying for His favors and Mercies, He has handed over the keys of His treasures to you. You are created for the next world and not for this. Death is following you, you cannot run away from it. Be warned that you do not make yourself a slave of anybody. The little given by Allah is more useful. Nobody can guard your secrets better than you. Treat the members of your family with love and respect.

               Source: Condensed from “ Last Will of Ali ibn Abi Talib” & Nahjul Balagha

Tuesday, June 13, 2017


To resolve the mystery of the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a.s.), one needs to review the characters and the background of this murder. There are three persons involved in this investigation; Imam Ali (a.s.), Muawiya bin Abu Sufiyan, and Amr bin A’s.

Muawiya bin Abu Sufiyan: He was the son of Abu Sufiyan, an archenemy of Islam and his mother was Hind, who had extracted the liver of Hazrat Hamza from his dead body and chewed it! Muawiya refused to offer allegiance to the fourth caliph of Muslims and revolted against him and fought in the Battle of Siffin with Imam Ali, ordered to curse Imam Ali from the mosques throughout the country. He sent a plain piece of paper to offer treaty of peace with Imam Hasan (a.s.) and soon publicly tore off the treaty and behaved utterly against the treaty. The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) said, “It would be too much if Muawiya could escape Hell Fire, how can there be any good in him” (Tarikh ibn Khallikan) He (s.a.w.a.s.) also said, “I dreamt that Bani Umayyad were jumping on my pulpit like monkeys” (Tafsir Nishapuri, Tafsir Bidhawi, and Tafsir Kabir of Razi)

Amr bin A’s: He was a close adviser of Muawiya. He played a role in the rise of Muawiya. As an arbitrator in the Battle of Siffin, he had made a deal with Muawiya that if he succeeds, he should be appointed governor of Egypt, which was agreed to by Muawiya. The mislead people in Imam Ali (a.s.)’s camp forced him to appoint Abu Musa Ash’ari as an arbitrator. The shrewd Amr bin A’s trapped Abu Musa and agreed with him to remove both Muawiya and Imam Ali (a.s.). Amr bin A’s persuaded Abu Musa to go on the pulpit first, and he went up the pulpit and announced his verdict to remove Imam Ali (a.s.). Then Amr bin A’s went up the pulpit and gave his verdict to keep Muawiya as the caliph! (WIKIPEDIA)

In Syria, under the direction of Muawiya, factories of producing fake ahadiths of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) worked and the writes were profusely rewarded from the wealth of Muslim Ummah. The history was written over the years by the vested interests making Abdul Rahman bin Muljim, a scape goat and making him completely and solely responsible for the assassination of the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (a.s.). The generally accepted account of the martyrdom has many “circumstantial evidences” and “coincidences”

In the prevalent circumstances, no one was more interested in the assassination of Imam Ali (a.s.) than Muawiya. The plot to kill Imam Ali (a.s.), the skill displayed in its execution, and its success, show the touch of consummate subtlety and a high degree of professionalism, which were characteristics of Muawiya alone. He employed the same skill in removing from the scene, fancied threats to his own security and power.
Muawiya’s spies informed him that Imam Ali (a.s.) was preparing for invasion of Syria. For his own security and future, he used his trusted techniques of treachery and intrigue. He made the act of assassination spontaneous and convincing by making himself and his crony Amr bin A’s, the potential and intended victims of the conspiracy and the fanaticism of the Kharaji anarchists. Both “escaped” the assassination by a “rare stroke of good luck” One of them fell sick and did not go to the mosque and the other went to the mosque wearing his armor under his cloak.

               Sources: WIKIPEDIA, Restatement of history of Islam and Muslims by Sayyid Ali Asghar                                 Razwy,  Misbah-uz-zulam, roots of Karbala tragedy by Sayyid Imdad Imam 

Monday, June 12, 2017


The Battle of Badr was the most important confrontation between the enemies of Islam and the followers of the new faith. The importance and the critical condition of the situation may be realized if we view the supplication of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) to Allah (s.w.t.):
“O Allah! This is Quraysh. It has come with all its arrogance and boastfulness, trying to discredit your Apostle. O Allah! I ask you to humiliate them tomorrow. O Allah! If this Muslim band will perish today, You shall not be worshiped.”
The Quraysh came up with 950 soldiers, out of which 100 were cavalry and 700 camels and the infantry was wearing chain-mail and armor. Muslims were 314 (including the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.)), having only 2 horses and 70 camels. It was 17 Ramzan 2 A.H.
The Muslim line of defense consisted of:
(1)   The sacred personality of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.), his wise leadership and matchless firmness. To the Muslims, he (s.a.w.a.s.) was the sheet anchor at Badr and at every battle.
(2)   The Hashemites (the clan of the Messenger), led by the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (a.s.), who entered this battle relatively obscured but came out with unparallel military fame. His (a.s.) military performances became the popular subject of the Arab caravan’s conversations throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
(3)   The hundreds of companions of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) whose hearts were filled with love for martyrdom.
The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) called for a meeting of the Muslims. Miqda’ad, who was a Muhajir, said, “O Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) of Allah! Do what Allah has commanded you to do. We are with you, now and at all times.”
Saad bin Mua’dh, who was an Ansar, said, “We have borne witness that you are a Messenger of Allah. We have given pledge to obey you. Where ever you go, we shall go with you.”
As the practice was at that time, before the general warfare, dual fights were the routine. Three members of Umayyad clan came out and called for duals with equal status; Utbah bin Rabiah, Walid bin Utbah and Sheiba bin Utbah.
The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s) sent Imam Ali (a.s.) to face Walid, Hamza faced Utba and Obedida faced Sheiba. Imam Ali (a.s.) destroyed Walid, Hamza killed Utba then they both assisted Obeidah. Sheibah died immediately but Obeidah was the first martyr of the battle. Then the general offensive began and the battle was over within 3 or 4 hours. When it was all over Quraysh had lost 70 people out of which 22 people were killed by Imam Ali (a.s.). Muslims took 70 prisoners.
The architect or hero of the Battle of Badr was undoubtedly, the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (a.s.) after killing more than one third of the casualties of the battle!
According to Tor Andre (author of Mohammed, the man and his faith, 1960), “Badr is the most important Battle in the entire history of Islam, and one of the most important in world history.”

               Sources: The Message by Ayatollah Ja’far Subhani, Restatement of history of Islam by                                       Sayyad Asghar Razwy

                    , of Badr

Saturday, June 10, 2017


The Grandson of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) and the son of the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (a.s.) and the Lady of Paradise of Paradise, Sayyida Fatima Zahra (s.a.)- Imam Hasan (a.s.) was born on 10 Ramzan 3 A.H. The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) recited Azan and Iqama in his ears and later sacrificed a ram (Aqiqa) for him. Imam Hasan (a.s.) resembled with his grandfather in form, manner and nobility.
The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) gifted him with all his great qualities and adorned him with the Divine knowledge, tolerance, intelligence, bounty and valor. Being infallible by birth and decorated with heavenly knowledge by Allah (s.w.t.), his insight had access to Lawhul-Mahfuz (Grand Tablet). As a young child, he became conversant with the contents of any wahy (Qur’anic Ayahs) revealed when he was in the mosque. Sayyida Fatima Zahra (s.a.) would recite the Ayahs in front of her father (s.a.w.a.s.). On inquiry, she told him that it was shared by young Imam Hasan (a.s.).

Most of his nights were spent on the carpet prayers. He shed tears in fear of Allah. While performing ablution (wudu), he trembled and his face would turn yellow by His (s.w.t.)’s fear. He utilized his worldly possessions in the betterment of the poor. He was very courteous and humble particularly with the poor.
After the martyrdom of his illustrious father, Imam Ali (a.s.), he was appointed by Allah (s.w.t.) as the next infallible Imam. The worldly khilafa was also finalized by the allegiance (bay’ah) of most of the Muslims. The governor of Syria (Sh’am) declared war against him. As his usual shrewd tactics, he used Muslims wealth (which was a trust) for his own selfish plans, use the sword against his opponents and made false promises of worldly gains. He applied the same tactics with the influential commanders of Imam (a.s.) army and forced the infallible Imam to sign a peace treaty. The terms of peace treaty are detailed in my article, “Peace Treaty of Imam Hasan with Muawiya bin Abu Sufiyan”. Hence the son of Abu Sufiyan, an arch enemy of Islam and the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.), captured the Islamic caliphate. In a public speech, he officially made null and void all the peace conditions by tearing off the copy of treaty.
 According to both Sunni and Shia sources, the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) said, “These two children of mine (Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn), are Imams whether they stand up or sit down.”
During the period, earlier to Imam Ali (a.s.)’s apparent khilafa, wealth started pouring in from the conquests of Egypt, Persia and other territories, in which the members of Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) did not participate, their share was placed in a Trust and the money was spent to help the poor and deserving Muslims. Although, Imam Ali(a.s.)’s progeny lived in small houses and lead a simple life, but the wealth was spent for the deserving people setting an example for their followers! Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husayn (a.s.) were the trustees of this fund.
Imam Hasan (a.s) was one of the Panjetan in whose honor, the Ayah of Purification was revealed; Surah al-Ahza’ab Ayah 33, “O People of the house, Allah wants to keep away all kinds of uncleanness from you and to purify you thoroughly.”
Similarly, Imam Hasan (a.s.) was also a part of the Ayah of Mubahelah, wherein he and his brother, Imam Husayn (a.s.) were representing the “Sons” of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.), Surah al-Imran Ayah 61, “Should anyone argue with youconcerning him, after the knowledge has come to you, then say:”'Come! Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our souls and your souls, then let us pray earnestly and call down Allah's curse upon the liars."
As a part of the wicked scheme, Moawiya bribed Imam Hasan (a.s.)’s wife, Ju’dah binte Ash’as, to poison the Imam (a.s.) and she will be married to his son, Yazid and sent 100,000 Dirhams. Because of the poison, the Imam (a.s.) attained martyrdom on Safar 28, 50 A.H. The Imam was aware that he will not be allowed to be buried alongside his grandfather, hence he advised Imam Husayn (a.s.) to bury him beside his mother in Jannat-ul-Baqi’ in Madina. The Imam had 3 sons; Qasim, Abdullah and Hasan Musanna. Qasim and Abdullah were martyred in Karbala and Hasan Musanna survived his wounds. He later married Imam Husayn (a.s.)’s daughter Fatima Sughra. Two of the grandsons; Sulayman and Idris migrated to Iran and Tunisia respectively. Sulayman’s descendants settles in Kirman and some of them migrated to India.
Imam Hasan (a.s.)’s golden saying was: “Regarding the world, be as if you were going to live forever. With respect to the Hereafter, be as if you were going to die tomorrow.”

               Sources:  The Glorious Qur’an, Story of Holy Ka’ba and its People by SMR Shabbar

                                             Imam Hasan, brief outlook, Brief History of Fourteen Infallible

Tuesday, June 6, 2017


Sayyida Khadija (s.a.) was the first wife of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.). He did not marry anyone while she was alive. There is well known saying, “Islam did not rise except Ali (a.s.)’s sword and Khadija (s.a.)’s wealth.”
She was born in Makkah in 565 A.D. and died in 623 A.D. which was 11 years after Hijra. Her father was Hazrat Khuwaylid bin Asad belonging to Banu Asad tribe, a clan of Banu Hashim. He was a successful merchant and Sayyida Khadija inherited his vast wealth. Her trade caravan equaled the caravans of all other traders of Quraysh put together.
In the Arabian society of Ja’hiliah, she earned the titles of “Ameert-ul-Quraysh” or “Princess of Quraysh” and “al-Tahira” or “the Pure One” due to her impeccable personality and virtuous character, not to mention her honorable descent. She used to be kind to the poor, assist her relatives financially. She did not worship idols and followed the Ibrahimic faith of Islam. As she did not travel herself with the caravans of trade she used to employee an agent. At one time, she was looking for a new agent and Hazrat Abu Talib (a.s.) suggested his nephew, the young Muhammad (s.a.w.a.s.) to do the job. She sent her servant, Maysarah, with him. The trip produced more profit than expected. Maysarah also saw some unusual events with the young Muhammad (s.a.w.a.s.). She sent him on another trade trip to Yemen. Her cousin Waraqa bin Nawfal told her that the manners of young Muhammad (s.a.w.a.s.) were like a messenger of God. She had also heard about his trust and truthfulness. Consequently, she proposed to marry him. The Nikah was performed by Hazrat Abu Talib (a.s.) and Nawfal gave away her hand to the young Muhammad (s.a.w.a.s.). The marriage was a very happy one and produced two boys who died in infancy. Sayyida Fatima Zahra (s.a.) was the only daughter who survived. Her period of happiness lasted for 15 years. When the revelation started, she was the first woman to confirm his prophecy. As Islam started to spread across the Arabian Peninsula, she handed over her entire wealth to her beloved husband and he used it for the Muslims. When the Quraysh boycotted the family of Hazrat Abu Talib (A.S.), the richest woman of Quraysh shared the hardships with her husband in the Shib-e-AbuTalib for 3 years. She used to give one gold coin to Imam Ali (a.s.), who was 16 years old at that time, to bring water secretly.  
The Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) used to say that Sayyida Khadijatul Kubra (s.a.) was one of the four best women of the world; the other three being Hazrat Maryam, mother of Prophet Eisa’, and Hazrat A’siya, wife of the Pharaoh and her daughter Sayyida Fatima Zahra (s.a.)
On the death bed, she sought forgiveness from her husband if she in any way failed to serve the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.). Then asked for Shifaa’t on the Day of Judgment from her husband. She told her wish to her beloved daughter, Sayyida Fatima Zahra (s.a.) to ask her father to shroud her dead body in the clothes he (s.a.w.a.s.) was wearing when the first Wahi was revealed.  
Sayyida Khadijatul Kubra (s.a.) and the “Protector of the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.)” Hazrat Abu Talib (A.S.) died in the same year. It was a great shock for him (s.a.w.a.s.), hence he called that year as “Aam ul Huzn” which means “Year of Grief”. Both these personalities were very dear and important to the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) and the All-Mighty Allah had referred to their functions in his life in Surah az-Zuha Ayah 6 and 8, “Did He (Allah) not find you an orphan and gave you shelter? Did He (Allah) not find you poor and enrich you?”
After her death, when one of his other wives heard him remembering and praising Sayyida Khadijatul Kubra (s.a.), the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) became very angry and said, “She believed in me when all others disbelieved; she held me truthful when all others called me a liar; she sheltered me when others abandoned me; she comforted me when others shunned me; and Allah granted me children by her while depriving me of children by other women.”
Surah al-Ahza’b Ayah 6, “The Prophet has more authority over the believers than themselves. His wives are their mothers.” The Muslims in Makkah were very poor. The infidel Quraysh had ordered their community members not to pay any wages to the Muslims. Sayyida Khadija (s.a.) fed them day after day so that no Muslim slept hungry. As a mother wants to see her children are well-fed, hence she took loving care of the Muslim Ummah. There is a well-known tradition the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) that Paradise is under the feet of their mothers.

               Sources: Khadijatul Kubra by Sayyid Ali Asghar Razwy,,,                                       ,

Sunday, June 4, 2017


All acts prohibited by Allah (s.w.t) as stated in the Glorious Qur’an, communicated by the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) and explained and elaborated by Ahlul Bayt (a.s.), are sins. Sins may be Greater or Smaller. The Merciful Allah (s.w.t.) promises to forgive and excuse Smaller Sins if we avoid Greater Sins as mentioned in Surah al-Nisa Ayah 31, “If you shun the Greater Sins which are forbidden, We will do away with your Smaller Sins and cause you to enter an exalted dwelling.”
The Commander of Faithful Imam Ali (a.s.) said, “Death occurs to a person in one of three ways; our devotees who obeys our commands and does not sin is given the good news of everlasting bounties. Our opponents shall forever be involved in Divine punishment. The person who has been unjust to his soul will find himself in an unsure condition. His death will be accompanied with terror and fear. Allah will remove him from Hell on our intercession. Act (rightly) and obey the commands of Allah. Do not consider the Divine punishment to be trifle, and certainly there are such people who would not be able to receive our intercession till after 3,00,000 years.”
The Infallible Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (a.s.) said, “By Allah, I fear for you the Barzaq. It is the grave. Its duration commences from the time of death until the Day of Judgment.”
Making Salat as light is counted among the Greater Sins. Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (a.s.) said, “Our intercession is not for those who consider prayer (Salat) as unimportant.”
Intercession should neither raise false hope nor to be a cause to be arrogant.
The Infallible Musa al-Kazim (a.s.) said, “Our Shias are only those who follow us (in every respect), walk into our foot-steps and imitate our actions.”
Verbal claim of being a Shia is insufficient if they do not follow the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) and Ahlul Bayt (a.s.)
According to Allama Majlisi, there are four types of Taqwa:
Wara at-Tabiri, which means to abstain from prohibited things. Wara as-Salihin, which means to abstain from doubtful things. Wara al-Muttaqin, which means to abstain from even permissible things so that one is absolutely protected from Haram. Wara as-Sadiqin, which means to avoid everything that is not religious to avoid waste of time in useless acts.
According to Ibne Abbas, the Noble Messenger (s.a.w.a.s.) said, “Love of Ali consumes the sins like fire consumes wood.”
Sayyid Muhammad al-Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi, an eminent jurist of the School of Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) had categorized four ways of recognizing Greater Sins:
All those sins are Greater which have been specifically termed as Greater in the Glorious Qur’an and the Traditions.
All those sins are Greater about which the Glorious Qur’an and Hadiths explicitly state that those who commit these sins will enter Hell.
Any sin, which is clearly Greater than a sin specified as Greater one in the Glorious Qur’an and Hadith; is also Greater.
Any sin which has all along being regarded as Greater by the scholars and the jurists, should also be considered as Greater.
According to the Infallible Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (a.s.), the following are the Greater Sins in the light of the Glorious Qur’an: Shirk (to attribute partners), to despair from Mercy of Allah, not fearing the retribution of Allah, disobey parents, kill a believer, slander for adultery, usurp orphan’s property, retreat from struggle, take interest, magic, adultery, false oath, betrayal of trust, fail to pay zakat, false witness, conceal evidence, drink wine, willfully avoid prayers, fail to perform any obligatory religious act, break ties with relatives.
Apart from the above, some more acts have been included as Greater Sin by the Infallible Imam Ali ar-Reza (a.s.) in a letter to Mamun ar Rashid which are: eating dead animals, blood and pigs, consuming Haram wealth, gambling, cheating in business, homosexuality, not acknowledging the bounties of Allah, cooperating with oppressors, lying, arrogance, squandering wealth, spend in the ways not permitted by Allah, consider Hajj as unimportant, enjoy vain occupation and persist in sins.

               Source: Greater Sins by Ayatollah Sayyid Abdul Husayn Dasteghaib Shirazi